The history of Photography

The principle of exposing light in a dark room was the concept behind photography. Although the concept was not developed until 1800 when Thomas Wedgwood unsuccessfully attempted to invent the equipment. Twenty years later, Nicéphore Niépce built the concept to success. It had numerous limitations since there was too much exposure to light for it to take a picture. Louis Daguerre capitalized on the challenge and built a camera that was widely accepted in 1839.

As usual, as time elapses new technology and people with brains use the challenges to come up with equipment that is more complex. William Henry Fox Talbot later invented the camera, which took pictures within seconds of exposure, unlike the initial one which took images within seconds of exposure. It used the concept of film and negatives and the concept of color or black and white. The main advantage of the film was the fact that the negative could be reproduced in other copies of the photos. This was throughout the 19th century. At the end of the century, when there was the introduction of the computers there was the innovation of the digital cameras which incorporated the two media concepts. This was the norm in the entire 20th  century. The 21st century saw a revolution of technological appliances and new technology was taking shape. The traditional film cameras lost meaning and became unpopular. The digital cameras took the globe by a storm, although the developed nations were the first to receive the technology. The emerging and developing nations got the concept in the middle of the 21st century.

The digital cameras had better image quality, and you could see the photo in a soft copy before it could be printed compared to the traditional photography; where the film did not have a prior view and there was no guarantee the picture was taken, there are laptop that works best with photos too so they can edit it first before printing . Another disadvantage was that you could not print single photos; the film had to be filled with photos then produce the entire film. The worst of it was the film must not be exposed to sunlight, such a mistake led to the destruction of the film and the other photos stored in it.

The advanced stages of photography were as a result of technological appliances required in producing the photographs.Tripods are invented to make sure photos are more focused(http://www.shutterfeet.com/10-best-camera-tripods-for-photography). Computer invention also made technology developers to produce printers which could accommodate photos and different types of paper. Photos must be printed on specialized paper. Initially, the cameras could only take two colors that are- black and white. As more innovation came in existence, the colored photographs took center stage. Currently, the vintage black and white are considered tradition photography.

The digital platform has also moved steps, initially there were specialized camera for the colored photographs, now the cameras are in built in mobile phones, tablets, and computers. The technological advancement photography has taken in the world history is commendable. The inventions are initiated in developed countries, but developing countries accept the concept much later due to distance and other government policies.

 

 

Best Table Tennis Players in the History

 

Table tennis is a popular sport in the Asian countries mainly China. Most of the greatest ping pong players originate from the continent. The best players have left records yet to be brosd-dingning-1ken. Some still play despite their current ages and still leave a trademark. Here are some of the famous players of all times.

Jan-Ove Waldner

His stage name “Evergreen” says it all, despite the age of 50, he still manages to beat stars. The Swedish native player has numerous fans in China. His stamina to ball response and rebound has made him win many table tennis games. At the age of 16, he was playing at the European championships. Jan got presidential recognition for table tennis. His middle year was spent in China where the sport is a legend with heavy investment on equipment for ping pong. He boasts of over 30 years in high-level table tennis sport with numerous awards and success stories.

Zhang Jike

This is yet another player who registers success and ho tangible weakness in playing the sport. His footwork, backhand, and fast speed in ball response have made him hold international world records for many years. He is the player who won the grand slam in repeatedly in less than two years. He can play from a distance within the court and never misses the ball. However, his arrogant attitude has reduced his number of fans and popularity.

Ma Long

Ma long is renowned for great attacking skills which beat all the best players. The hard working player is popular for great footwork and handwork with high intensity on ball response. The humble player is perfect in the game. This is one player does not lose a set and is bound to win any high-level game. Every player fears him for his strength and proper mastery of the game and the opponents’ weakness, which he capitalizes and makes a win. Ma Long won a single world championship, a great win in the world history.

Wang Nan

This is a left-handed female table tennis player prominent in playing both doubles and singles with gold medals. The Chinese player has brought table tennis play to high levels through his unique moves and strength in ball handling. He has won four titles in the world cup. She uses the left-hand position to confuse her opponents and make a win.

Zhang Yining

Zhang is also a Chinese player popular for protest grip in ball handling while playing table tennis. In 2009 and 2008, she broke the record by winning the World table Tennis championships. She is also renowned for her great strength and stamina while playing the game which has widened her prominence in the sport.

 

Most famous players of the indoor game come from China. They have mastered the art and studied their opponents’ weaknesses to ensure they clinch the top positions in the championships in both singles and doubles. They practiced at home with this robot and most of them use a good brand of ping-pong table. They check indepth review of the Killerspin revolution table and picked it up from www.bestpingpongtables.review. There are many renowned players but the five are the best among the female and men best ping pong players.

 

The discovery of GPS


Global Positioning system (GPS) is the discovery of the United States Department of Defense in the 1960s, though it started working effectively in 1995. During the World War II, the department of defense has to locate the location of the army, navy and air force. This required great coordination, which the current radio transmissions could not handle. When the navy department needed to locate one of the submarines, they found it a challenge using the radio transmissions, which could not be detected under water using the 24 satellites. One of the United States commanders tried to incorporate the TRANSIT system to locate the submarine using the satellites. They succeeded in locating at least once an hour.

After seven years, they developed Timation-a navigation satellite system, which was able to put clocks on space, which could coordinate with the time on earth. This is a requirement in GPRS navigation system.

The challenges

Many challenges forced the US navy department to the invented OMEGA navigation system, which was to be able to locate time in different parts of the earth at one particular time. The main aim of the invention was to coordinate activities between stations to help attack the enemy.

Better still, it has its own limitation; there was a need for a more collective navigation system to connect people irrespective of the location. It was not an easy task since it proved expensive since it needed comprehensive research, testing, and operation. No one was ready to fund the project. Circumstances forced them to fund. During the Cold war in the US army, According to the United States Congress, there was no reason for withholding funds anymore since the cold war threatened the existence of the United States Army using nuclear bombs. The army countered this by forming a highly- secretive force (nuclear triad) which consisted of the major arms of the US army.

The discovery

The departments were developing parallel systems to increase surveillance. It became evident the US Navy force was slow for the air force and forced them to develop their own to monitor the position of their planes as they try to counter the cold war effect. This lead to project 621B, whose elements were factored in the current GPRS system. Their system was a timely and reduced range. Surveyors benefitted from the system. Combined efforts of different arms of the United States Department of defense and the ground surveyors lead to the development of GPS.

The best functions of the four systems lead to the formation of one customized, complex and complete navigation system. Technological advancement has led to the polishing of project 621B discoveries. Computers have also led to easy and more advanced navigation systems, which can be customized in smartphones, tablets, GPS watches and navigation equipment.

In conclusion, the department of defense of the United States takes the crown in invention, innovation, and discovery of the GPS system. The nuclear threat was a revelation to help in coordination to locate submarines and planes and coordinate to prevent the enemy from penetration. And many people now chose the garmin zumo 390 gps for my motorcycle adventures. There are also many other GPS system to choose from www.mybestmotorcyclegps.com

The First Table Saw invented

 

babbitt_3The first table saw was invented in the 18th century. The woodwork tool has a fixed arbor and table. You had to move the table in the up-down movement to cut wood at different heights. It was bulky in weight though the blade was made of steel hence its strength. It used a circular motion in cutting wood. The hand-held tool was cumbersome but could cut plastic and metal in addition to wood. It used a hydraulic motor as a source of power.

The inventor was Samuel Miller from Southampton in England in 1777. To cut wood from the tool, you had two options: either to clamp it in its vise or hold the part you need to cut on the blade and start the motor for the blade to rotate in a circular motion and cut it. Each tooth of the blade pierced the wood and chippings would drop, this was to avoid the teeth from grinding on the blade. The abrasive wheel also helped cut the wood. The main advantage of the thin blade was a smooth surface after the cut. The tool was designed such that the wood was accurately cut, and in a straight line since the clamp help the wood in a perpendicular position between the blade and the wood. The table bench was used mostly in sawmills to cut wood into desired pieces for making block and furniture. And sometimes, this is used wood planner. Check planer review comparison here: bestcabinettablesaw.com

Uses of table saw

It was an ideal tool when you needed to cut wood into small pieces. For large wood, it was cumbersome to be handheld or clamped on the blade. This was the main reason for more invention and innovation of better table saw with different technology. In case you place too much wood on the blade, it will not clamp tightly and further the blade will not spin for the teeth to be in contact with the wood to enable cutting.

To avoid wastage, it was important to make your own calculations so that the measurements are accurate with minimal wood wastage. A unique feature of the first table saw was the fact that you could use it with either left hand or right hand. The best way to hold the wood for cutting was to interchange the sides between holding and motor position. If you hold on the right, the motor should be on the left as well as the blade and vice versa. The shafts that support the blade were metallic and propelled horizontally towards the motor and vertically to the wood.

Despite the portability of the saw, the steel used in developing it was bulky and cumbersome to carry. The current table saws are modified, though using the same concept in cutting, but the motor is powered by electricity, which is faster. Most of the functions are also automatic as opposed to the old table saw whose functions were manually handheld. After the first table saw, there are many other saws developed prior to the current machines.

The Toilet features development

skd187589sdc_xsThe toilet is one important sanitation tool in a household. It is a tool constantly used by everyone in the home. Before making a choice to buy a toilet, there are many factors to be considered to ensure the comfort of every household. Some of the factors include space, the type of toilet to suit all ages and the type of toilet bowl.

There are different types of toilets depending on the location and availability of water and to help you decide where to place heaters. Comparison of the top rated tankless water heaters here. In urban areas where water is a necessity; they use flush toilets built within the house and connected to the septic tanks or the sewer system. Areas that lack sufficient water supply use pit latrines.  The sanitation equipment can be the same room with the bathtub, depending on home owners taste especially if he needs to save on space and how they can get the right wall mounted toilet. Here are features of a flush toilet

Flush toilet tank

The toilet tank holds water on the upper part of the toilet system. It is fixed on the wall to allow water to flow under gravity. It holds the flush system, which uses the hydraulic concept to allow water to flow from the main source through pipes and later to the toilet once the flash handle is pulled or pushed. The tank is small in shape, depending on the manufacturer. It is made of melamine since it is light in weight. To save on toilet space some homeowners use the upper part as storage for toiletries or 1-piece toilets instead of a clunky 2 piece. Toilet tank has not evolved so much; the same traditional concept is still used in the manufacturer of the current tanks.

Toilet bowl

There are two types of bowls in a flush toilet. There are the seat and the squat bowl. The seat ball has a detachable lid. It is a standard height ideal for teenagers and adults. However, the children can use a potty seat or stand to allow them to use the toilets. Water passes through the pipe to the bowl via the edges so that the entire bowl is in contact with water when one flushes.  The squat bowl is like a pit latrine but uses the flush toilet system.

Flash handle

The flush handle, when pushed or pulled, ignites the flash valve to open and release water to the pipes and then to the bowl. Though still in existence but they currently they use the button handles which you just press for water to flow.

Flash system

The flush system is in inside the tank. It is a complex system which complicated science concepts integrated to ensure there is proper coordination of the water from the main source to the flush tank and then to the pipe, then the bowl and finally channeled to either the sewer system or the septic tanks.

Plumbers have the right skills to fix the flush toilet system and perform the functions effectively. A good flush toilet should be fixed in an area close to the sewer system. The urinal toilets can only handle urine but human solid waste must be disposed of in the flush toilet. The standard color for a flush toilet is white.